BMW 1993-1999 OBD1 DIY Diagnostic without OBD Scanner

BMW OBD1 DIY Diagnostic without OBD Scanner

BMW OBD1 DIY Diagnostic without OBD Scanner

General information

  • Trouble codes are displayed by using an LED connected to one of the ECM terminals.
  • The ECM fault memory can also be checked using diagnostic equipment connected to the data link connector (DLC).

Accessing – flash type

NOTE: Flash type cannot be accessed from some engine control modules (ECM).

  • Ensure ignition switched OFF.
  • Connect breakout box between ECM and harness multi-plug.
  • ECM located in the plenum chamber.
  • Motronic M1.7/3.1: Connect LED tester between breakout box terminal 8 and battery (12 volt) positive Fig. 1 .
  • Motronic M1.2: Connect LED tester between breakout box terminal 15 and battery (12 volt) positive Fig. 2 .
  • Switch ignition ON.
  • Depress accelerator pedal fully 5 times within 5 seconds.
  • V12: To access trouble codes from ECM LH bank, depress accelerator pedal fully 6 times within 5 seconds.

NOTE: V12 engine is controlled by two ECMs, RH bank and LH bank.

  • Count LED flashes. Note trouble codes. Compare with trouble code table.
  • Long flash indicates start of trouble code display Fig. 3 [A].
  • Each trouble code consists of four groups of flashes Fig. 3 [B].
  • For example: Trouble code 1211 displayed: Engine control module (ECM) Fig. 3 [B].
  • LED flashes code 0000 Fig. 4 , 1000 Fig. 5 or 2000 Fig. 6 at end of trouble code output.
  • Switch ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect LED.

Erasing – flash type

  • Depress accelerator pedal fully for 10 seconds minimum when trouble code 0000, 1000 or 2000 (end of output) is flashed.
  • Switch ignition OFF.

Trouble code identification

Flash typeFault locationProbable cause
0End of trouble code output
1000End of trouble code output
1211
1215
Engine control module (ECM) – defective
Mass air flow (MAF) sensor/volume air flow (VAF) sensor – incorrect signal
Disconnect ECM multi-plug for at least 10 min. – check if trouble code reappears before replacing ECM
Wiring, connector(s), MAF sensor/VAF sensor
1216Throttle position (TP) sensor – defectiveWiring, connector(s), TP sensor
1218Engine control module (ECM) – output stageWiring, ECM controlled components
1221Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – circuit malfunctionWiring, connector(s), HO2S
1222
1223
Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – range/performance problem
Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor – malfunction
Wiring, intake/exhaust leak, fuel level low, fuel pressure, EVAP canister purge valve, injector(s), HO2S, ECM
Wiring, connector(s), ECT sensor
1224Intake air temperature (IAT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), IAT sensor
1225Knock sensor (KS) 1 – defectiveWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened
1226Knock sensor (KS) 2 – defectiveWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened
1231Battery voltage – too low/highWiring, alternator, battery
1232Closed throttle position (CTP) switch – malfunctionWiring, connector, CTP switch, ECM
1233Throttle position (TP) sensor – malfunctionWiring, TP sensor, ECM
1234Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) – incorrect/no signalWiring, instrument panel, VSS
1235Torque converter clutch (TCC) solenoid – defectiveWiring, TCC solenoid
1236
1236
4
,
6
1237
1238
1238
4
1241
1241
6
Throttle control, traction control system (TCS) – defective
Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, ASR system
AC compressor clutch relay – malfunction
Intake manifold air control solenoid – circuit malfunction
Engine control module (ECM) – unused output stage
Engine control module (ECM) – no supply voltage
Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, traction control system (TCS)
Wiring, connector(s), throttle control system
Wiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
Wiring, AC compressor clutch relay
Wiring, connector, intake manifold air control solenoid
Wiring short to earth/positive, ignore flash code if terminal 18 not connected
Wiring, fuse(s), battery
Wiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
1241
4
Engine control module (ECM), electronic throttle system (ETS) – overrun torque controlWiring short to positive, ECM
1242AC control module/engine control module (ECM) communication – malfunctionWiring, AC control module
1243Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor/engine speed (RPM) sensor – incorrect/no signalWiring, CKP sensor/RPM sensor
1244Camshaft position (CMP) sensor – range/performance problemWiring, CMP sensor
1245Engine control module (ECM)/transmission control module (TCM) communication – short to earthWiring, ECM, TCM
1247Ignition circuit – primary circuitWiring, ignition coil(s)
1251Injector(s), group 1 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
1251
4
Injector, cyl. 1 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1252Injector(s), group 2 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
1252
4
Injector, cyl. 5 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1253Injector, cyl. 3 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1254Injector, cyl. 6 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1255Injector, cyl. 2 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1256Injector, cyl. 4 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
1261Fuel pump relay – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), fuel pump relay
1262Idle speed control (ISC) actuator/idle air control (IAC) valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ISC actuator/IAC valve
1263Evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), EVAP canister purge valve
1264Oxygen sensor heater relay – malfunctionWiring, connector, oxygen sensor heater relay
1265Malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) – short to earth/positiveWiring short to earth/positive, MIL
1268Mixture adjustment resistor – signal too low/highWiring, mass air flow (MAF) sensor
1271Ignition circuit – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1271
4
Ignition circuit, cyl. 1 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1272Ignition circuit, cyl. 5 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1273Ignition circuit, cyl. 3 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1274Ignition circuit, cyl. 6 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1275Ignition circuit, cyl. 2 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1276Ignition circuit, cyl. 4 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
1278Transmission control module (TCM) – signalWiring, TCM
1281Battery voltage – too lowWiring, alternator, battery
1282Engine control module (ECM) – internal faultDisconnect ECM multi-plug for at least 10 min. – check if trouble code reappears before replacing ECM
1283Injector(s) – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
1285Engine control module (ECM)/alarm system control module communication – alarm system activeWiring short to positive, alarm system control module
1286Knock control circuit – defectiveWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened, knock sensor (KS), ECM
1287Engine control module (ECM) – electronic throttle system (ETS) signalWiring short to positive, ignore flash code if terminal 62 not connected
1288Engine control module (ECM) – internal faultECM
1288
4
Engine control module (ECM) – automatic stability control (ASR)/overrun torque control defectiveWiring, ETS, ABS trouble code(s) stored
1444No fault found
1513Engine control module (ECM) – unused output stageWiring short to earth/positive, ignore flash code if terminal 18 not connected
2000End of trouble code output
2211Engine control module (ECM) – defectiveDisconnect ECM multi-plug for at least 10 min. – check if trouble code reappears before replacing ECM
2215Mass air flow (MAF) sensor/volume air flow (VAF) sensor – incorrect signalWiring, connector(s), MAF sensor/VAF sensor
2218Engine control module (ECM) – output stageWiring, ECM controlled components
2221Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – circuit malfunctionWiring, connector(s), HO2S
2222Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – range/performance problemWiring, intake/exhaust leak, fuel level low, fuel pressure, evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve, injector(s), HO2S, ECM
2223Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ECT sensor
2224Intake air temperature (IAT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), IAT sensor
2231Battery voltage – too low/highWiring, alternator, battery
2232Closed throttle position (CTP) switch – malfunctionWiring, connector, CTP switch, ECM
2233Throttle position (TP) sensor – malfunctionWiring, TP sensor, ECM
2234Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) – incorrect/no signalWiring, instrument panel, VSS
2235Torque converter clutch (TCC) solenoid – defectiveWiring, TCC solenoid
2236Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, automatic stability control (ASR) systemWiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
2237AC compressor clutch relay – malfunctionWiring, AC compressor clutch relay
2241Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, traction control system (TCS)Wiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
2244Camshaft position (CMP) sensor – range/performance problemWiring, CMP sensor
2245Engine control module (ECM)/transmission control module (TCM) communication – short to earthWiring, ECM, TCM
2444No fault found
2251Injector(s), group 1 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
2252Injector(s), group 2 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
2261Fuel pump relay – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), fuel pump relay
2263Evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), EVAP canister purge valve
2264Oxygen sensor heater relay – malfunctionWiring, connector, oxygen sensor heater relay
2265Malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) – short to earth/positiveWiring short to earth/positive, MIL
2268Mixture adjustment resistor – signal too low/highWiring, mass air flow (MAF) sensor
2278Transmission control module (TCM) – signalWiring, TCM
2513Engine control module (ECM) – unused output stageWiring short to earth/positive – ignore flash code if terminal 18 not connected
4444No fault found
Scanner typeFault locationProbable cause
No fault found
0Engine control module (ECM) – undefined fault
1Engine control module (ECM) – defectiveECM
1
1
Fuel pump relay – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), fuel pump relay
2Idle speed control (ISC) actuator/idle air control (IAC) valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ISC actuator/IAC valve
3
2
Fuel pump relay – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), fuel pump relay
3Injector(s), cyl. 1 & 3 or cyl. 2, 4, 6 & 8, 10, 12
– circuit malfunction
Wiring, injector(s)
3
3
Injector(s), cyl. 2 & 4 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
3
4
Injector(s), cyl. 1 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
4Injector(s), cyl. 3 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
5Evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), EVAP canister purge valve
5
4
Injector(s), cyl. 2 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
6Injector(s) – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
7Mass air flow (MAF) sensor/volume air flow (VAF) sensor – incorrect signalWiring, connector(s), MAF sensor/VAF sensor
10Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – range/performance problemWiring, intake/exhaust leak, fuel level low, fuel pressure, evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve, injector(s), ECM
12Throttle position (TP) sensor – defectiveWiring, connector(s), TP sensor
15Knock sensor (KS) 1 – defectiveWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened, KS
16Injector(s), cyl. 1, 3, 5 & 7, 9, 11 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
16
1
Camshaft position (CMP) sensor – range/performance problemWiring, CMP sensor
17Injector(s), cyl. 2, 4, 6 & 8, 10, 12 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
18Engine control module (ECM) – unused output stageWiring short to earth/positive, ignore flash code if terminal 18 not connected
18
5
Intake manifold air control solenoid – circuit malfunctionWiring, connector, intake manifold air control solenoid
19Engine control module (ECM) – unused output stageWiring short to earth/positive, ignore flash code if terminal 18 not connected
23Oxygen sensor heater relay – malfunctionWiring, connector, oxygen sensor heater relay
23
4
Ignition circuit, cyl. 2 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
24Engine control module (ECM)/transmission control module (TCM) communicationWiring short to earth, TCM trouble code(s) stored
24
4
Ignition circuit, cyl. 3 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
25Ignition circuit, cyl. 1 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
26Battery voltage – too lowWiring, alternator, battery
28Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – circuit malfunctionWiring, connector(s), HO2S
29Idle speed control (ISC) actuator/idle air control (IAC) valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ISC actuator/IAC valve
31Injector, cyl. 5 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
32Injector(s), cyl. 2 & 4 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
32
6
Injector(s), cyl. 1, 3, 5 & 7, 9, 11 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
32
3
Injector(s), cyl. 1 & 3 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector(s)
32
4
Injector, cyl. 6 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
33Injector, cyl. 4 – circuit malfunctionWiring, injector
36Evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), EVAP canister purge valve
37Battery voltage – too low/highWiring, alternator, battery
37
1
Oxygen sensor heater relay – malfunctionWiring, connector, oxygen sensor heater relay
38Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, acceleration skid control (ASR) systemWiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
41Mass air flow (MAF) sensor/volume air flow (VAF) sensor – incorrect signalWiring, connector(s), MAF sensor/VAF sensor
42Knock sensor (KS) 2 – defectiveWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened, KS
44Intake air temperature (IAT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), IAT sensor
45Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ECT sensor
46AC condenser blower motor relay – short to positiveWiring short to positive, AC condenser blower motor relay, ECM
46
4
Engine control module (ECM) – output stageWiring, ECM controlled components
48AC compressor clutch relay – malfunctionWiring, AC compressor clutch relay
50Ignition circuit, cyl. 4 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
51Transmission control module (TCM) – signalWiring, TCM
51
4
Ignition circuit, cyl. 6 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
52Closed throttle position (CTP) switch – malfunctionWiring, connector, CTP switch, ECM
52
4
Ignition circuit, cyl. 5 – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
53Throttle position (TP) sensor/wide open throttle (WOT) switch – malfunctionWiring, TP sensor, ECM
54Engine control module (ECM)/transmission control module (TCM) communicationWiring short to earth, TCM trouble code(s) stored
54
1
Battery voltage – too low/highWiring, alternator, battery
55Ignition circuit – defectiveWiring, connector, ignition coil, ECM
62Engine control module (ECM) – electronic throttle system (ETS) signalWiring short to positive, ignore flash code if terminal 62 not connected
63Torque converter clutch (TCC) solenoid – defectiveWiring, TCC solenoid
64Engine control module (ECM)/transmission control module (TCM) communication – short to earthWiring, TCM trouble code(s) stored, ECM, TCM
67Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor/engine speed (RPM) sensor – incorrect/no signalWiring, CKP sensor/RPM sensor
70Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – circuit malfunctionWiring, connector(s), HO2S
73Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) – incorrect/no signalWiring, instrument panel, VSS
76Mixture adjustment resistor – signal too low/highWiring, mass air flow (MAF) sensor
77Intake air temperature (IAT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), IAT sensor
78Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor – malfunctionWiring, connector(s), ECT sensor
81Engine control module (ECM)/immobilizer control module communication – malfunctionWiring, electrical interference, immobilizer control module, ECM
81
4
Engine control module (ECM)/alarm system control module communication – alarm system activeWiring short to positive, alarm system control module
82Engine control module (ECM)/ABS control module communication, traction control system (TCS)Wiring, ABS trouble code(s) stored, ECM
82
4
Engine control module (ECM), electronic throttle system (ETS) – overrun torque controlWiring short to positive, ECM
83Throttle control, traction control system (TCS)
– defective
Wiring, connector(s), throttle control system
83
4
Engine control module (ECM) – acceleration skid control (ASR) defectiveWiring short to positive, ECM
85Air conditioning (AC) control module/engine control module (ECM) communication – malfunctionWiring, AC control module
100Engine control module (ECM) – output stageWiring, ECM controlled components
200Engine control module (ECM) – defectiveDisconnect ECM multi-plug for at least 10 min. – check if trouble code reappears before replacing ECM
201Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) – range/performance problemWiring, intake/exhaust leak, fuel level low, fuel pressure, evaporative emission (EVAP) canister purge valve, injector(s), HO2S, ECM
202Engine control module (ECM) – internal faultDisconnect ECM multi-plug for at least 10 min. – check if trouble code reappears before replacing ECM
203Ignition circuit – primary circuitWiring, ignition coil(s)
204Engine control module (ECM) – acceleration skid control (ASR)/overrun torque control defectiveWiring, trouble code(s) stored in other system(s)
206Knock control circuit – defectiveWiring, connector, knock sensor (KS), ECM
207Knock control circuit – range/performance problemWiring, connector, KS incorrectly tightened, knock sensor (KS)
220Engine control module (ECM) – immobilizer activeIncorrect/damaged key, incorrectly coded, ECM/immobilizer replacement without coding, wiring, immobilizer defective
300Engine control module (ECM) – engine cannot be startedWiring, engine speed (RPM) sensor, mass air flow (MAF) sensor/volume air flow (VAF) sensor, fuel pump relay, ignition system, injector(s), fuel pressure, throttle control system

 

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